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Project at a Glance

Contents on the CD Rom

  • Internal sizing of paper, most paper types must have some water-resistance in order to have a specific writing quality and / or printability.
  • Until 1980 mainly a rosin in combination with alum was used. When the paper industry started using chalk instead of to china clay as filler, the paper chemistry had to switch to a neutral process.
  • Today mainly AKD (alkyl ketene dimer) and ASA ( alkenyl succinic anhydride) are used.
  • Internal sizing chemicals used in papermaking at the wet end are ASA, AKD and rosin.
  • By making the paper web more hydrophobic, the sizing agents influence dewatering and retention of fillers and fibers in the paper sheet. Next to paper quality, internal sizing agents' main effect is on runability of the paper machine.
  • Alkyl Ketene Dimmer (AKD) also called AKD wax and Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA) are wax like chemicals.
  • Both AKD and ASA are used as sizing chemicals for paper.
  • Due to changes in paper manufacturing technologies the sizing process is changed to alkaline/neutral sizing from
    acidic sizing.
  • AKD and ASA are the main neutral sizing chemicals.
  • Sizing additives may be added through the wet end (internal sizing) or applied to the surface of the paper (surface sizing).
  • There is a definitive trend in the industry toward surface sizing applications that is mostly related to significant improvements in size press technology such as speed sizers, which offer good runnability and allow for good economics.
  • The most important sizing products are still rosin sizes, AKD, ASA used for internal sizing and styrene-maleic anhydride (SMA), polyurethanes and starches used mainly as surface sizes.
  • Rosin-based chemicals bind rather than permanently bond to the solids in the paper.
  • In contrast, synthetic alkylketenedimer (AKD) wax and alkenylsuccinic-anhydride (ASA) react with hydroxyl groups to form permanent chemical bonds.
  • ASA reacts faster while AKD sizing develops slowly, sometimes off-machine. Reactive sizing is now standard for woodfree paper production.
  • AKD and ASA share the market in North America, while AKD is used predominantly in Europe.
  • At present, alkaline processes are used to produce 20% of the paper and paperboard made in the United States.
  • Alkenyl ketene dimers and alkenyl succinic anhydride are synthetic sizing agents that are generally used under neutral or slightly alkaline papermaking conditions.
General Information
  • Paper Sizing information
  • Sizing information sheet
  • Sizing


  • AKD sizing behavior of high-bulk papers prepared with fatty acid diamide salts
  • Alkaline Sizing for fine paper
  • Binary sizing with AKD for manufacturing MG Products
  • Mathematical analysis of coated paper production process
  • ASA Optimisation - Control of Particle Size, Stability and Hydrolysis
  • AKD and ASA model surfaces: Preparation and characterization
  • On the internal sizing mechanisms of paper with AKD and ASA related to surface chemistry, wettability and friction

Patent & Technology

  • Degraded hydrophobic, particulate starches and their use in paper sizing
  • Paper sizing
  • Paper size and paper sizing process
  • Paper sizing composition
  • Chemical compositions useful as paper sizing agents and method of making same
  • Determination of AKD sizing agents in paper making systems by gas chromatography


  • Influence of the alkyl ketene dimmer (AKD) sizes on the furnish behaviour and paper properties
  • Paper board as a substrate for extrusion coating
  • Optimization of ASA emulsification in internal sizing of paper and board
  • Successful trials and optimization of ASA Sizing
  • An experience of alkaline sizing with AKD
  • AKD Sizing

Company Profiles

  • Company from China
  • Company from India
  • Company from Iran
  • Company from Netherland
  • Company from Pune
  • Company from UK
  • Company from North America

Consultancy & Plant

  • Consultancy from Australia
  • Consultancy from America
  • Consultancy from New Delhi
  • Consultancy from New Jersy
  • Consultancy from BNConsulting
  • Consultancy from USA
  • Another consultancy from USA
  • Plant from Assam


  • VERSIZE-DRP (Neutral Sizing Agent)
  • MPM Technical sheet
  • MSD Technical sheet


  • A study of AKD size retention, reaction and sizing efficiency
  • Optimizing alkaline sizing in sugar cane bagasse paper recycling
  • Paper's resistance to wetting - A review of interval sizing chemicals and their effects
  • A study of how surface wetting may affect the coating layer when coating paper


  • Mini-Encyclopedia of Papermaking Wet-End Chemistry
  • Developments in papermaking using alkaline sizing in mix agro furnish a mill experience
  • Paper coating chemicals
  • Paper quality improvement options and efective ways of neutral/alkaline sizing of indigneous pulps
  • Rosin sizing under neutral alkaline papermaking conditions
  • Alkaline Sizing Applications Surge Ahead
  • The use of alkenyl succinic anhydride for sizing recycled fibres

Project & Report

  • AKD/ASA-Paper sizing chemicals
  • Alkaline paper making an overview
  • Alkaline sizing & our mills experience
  • IPPTA and seminar workshops on "Wet end chemistry with special emphasis on neutral sizing/alkaline sizing
  • Responding to the PCC challenge
  • Recent developments in paper making chemicals
  • Printing papers : sizing and its role
  • Sizing Problems
  • Alkaline and neutral sizing trends


  • Paper sizing chemicals suppliers
  • Suppliers and manufacturers of Paper sizing chemicals
  • Selling leads of paper sizing chemicals
  • Exporters of paper sizing chemicals

Raw Material Suppliers

  • Alkyl ketene dimer suppliers
  • Alkenyl Succinic Anhydrides suppliers
  • Suppliers of Alkenyl Succinic Anhydrides
  • Alkyl Ketene Dimer suppliers and manufacturers

Equipment Suppliers

  • Distillation Equipment suppliers
  • Selling leads of Distillation Equipment
  • Filter suppliers
  • Glass lined exporters
  • SS reaction vessels selling leads
  • SS reaction vessels suppliers

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