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  • Molasses is a by product of the sugar industry and is the starting raw material for the production of industrial alcohol, which is used as a source of energy for automobiles, as well as the production of organic chemicals, such as aldehydes, acetone, acetic acid, acetic anhydride, isophoron, citric acid, glycerol, yeast and many other derivatives for pharmaceutical and plastic industries
  • There are three popular variety of Citric acid, namely Monohydrate Citric acid, Anhydrate citric acid and Sodium citrate
  • Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. It is a natural preservative and is also used to add an acidic (sour) taste to foods and soft drinks. In biochemistry, it is important as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle and therefore occurs in the metabolism of almost all living things. It also serves as an environmentally benign cleaning agent and acts as an antioxidant.
  • Citric acid exists in a variety of fruits and vegetables, but it is most concentrated in lemons and limes, where it can comprise as much as 8% of the dry weight of the fruit. At room temperature, citric acid is a white crystalline powder. It can exist either in an anhydrous (water-free) form, or as a monohydrate that contains one water molecule for every molecule of citric acid.
  • In this production technique, which is still the major industrial route to citric acid used today, cultures of Aspergillus niger are fed on sucrose to produce citric acid. After the mold is filtered out of the resulting solution, citric acid is isolated by precipitating it with lime (calcium hydroxide) to yield calcium citrate salt, from which citric acid is regenerated by treatment with sulfuric acid.
  • Citric acid is used as a food additive to make foods tart, or to adjust the acidity, or to mix with bicarbonates to generate carbon dioxide gas. It is also used for its anti-oxidant properties, to prevent oils from becoming rancid. Citric acid is highly astringent, and is used as a skin toner.
  • Citric acid was originally extracted from lemons and limes, but it is now produced commercially by a fermentation process. The mould Aspergillus niger is used to ferment a carbohydrate source such as Molasses.
  • Many of the industrial applications of Citric acid are based not only upon its acidic properties, but also upon its powerful sequestering action with various transient metals, such as iron, copper, nickel, cobalt, chromium and manganese.
  • Hit by high energy and raw material costs coupled with the ongoing threat of cheaper Chinese production, US and European citric acid firms have found themselves increasingly squeezed into an unprofitable market, where increased costs cannot adequately be recovered through price hikes.
  •  Citric acid is one of the most widely used food acids by today's food and beverage industry, with over 70 per cent of the world's 1.4 million ton market propelled by this sector. Currently, Europe is left with only three citric acid factories, the largest of which is Jungbunzlauer's plant in Pernhofen, Austria.
  • Citric acid is one of the important chemicals used in various industrial processes. It is estimated that about 500,000 tons of citric acid is produced annually by fermentation of expensive raw materials like glucose and sucrose. In developed countries, 65% of citric acid consumption is in food and beverages and 20% in household detergents with the estimated global growth rate in demand between a 4 to 5% per year.
  • In  Asia, consumption is highest in India, Indonesia, Thailand and the Republic of Korea. Growth in this region is expected to be 6–7% per year over the next few years, driven mainly by beverages, which account for 85–90% of demand.
  • The citric acid market is impacted by price, which has been driven down by a combination of strong competition from Chinese products and an abundance of global capacity. European producers are contending with imports from Chinese producers. While the average prices were declining, Chinese imports of citric acid to Western Europe grew significantly from 2004 to 2007. The significant increase in imports during these years led to high European Commission antidumping duties in 2008, which helped to increase prices (up about 35% on average in dollar terms) in 2008 compared with 2007. However, the antidumping measures have not been as effective on import volumes as was expected. After antidumping measures were applied for all Chinese producers during 2008, several Chinese producers were exempted from the antidumping duty in 2009, as long as they met the minimum import price (MIP) as defined by the EU and reviewed quarterly. As a result, list prices started to drop later in 2009 compared with 2008 levels.
 General Information
  • Citric Acid
  • History of Citric Acid
  • Chemical Formula of Citric Acid
  • Characteristics of Citric Acid
  • Physical Properties of Citric Acid

Production and Processing

  • Citric Acid Production
  • Production of Citric Acid by Fungi
  • Citric acid production from glucose by yeast Candida oleophila
  • Production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger
  • Production of Citric Acid from a New Substrate, Undersized Semolina
  • Citric Acid Production by Solid State Fermentation
  • Citric Acid from Citrus Processing Wastes
  • Citric acid production from whey with sugars and
    additives by Aspergillus niger

Functions and Properties

  • Biosynthetic and Bioenergetic Functions of Citric Acid
  • Effect of citric acid on crystallization of calcium sulfate
  • Properties of Citric Acid
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism in Citric Acid Fermentation
  • Sensory Properties of Citric Acid
  • Effects of Microbial Phytase, Citric Acid, and Their Interaction in a Corn-Soybean

Reactions and Cycle

  • Citric Acid Cycle
  • Citric Acid Cycle Reactions
  • Complete Citric Acid Cycle
  • Reactions of Citric Acid
  • Citric Acid Electron Transport Chain
  • Overview of the citric acid cycle

Company Profiles

  • APAC Chemical Corporation
  • Jungbunzlauer
  • Pearl Chemicals Limited
  • Shandong Business Net
  • Gadot Biochemical Industries Ltd
  • Vexim trades chemicals


  • Consultants and their Resumes


  • Agricultural Applications of Citric Acid
  • Uses of Citric Acid in Food Industry
  • Crystallization of Calcium sulfate using Citric Acid
  • Application of Citric Acid in Neural Network
  • Uses of Citric Acid
  • Application of Citric Acid in Food Preservation


  • Citric Acid Products
  • Citric Acid Crystals
  • DSM Nutritional Products
  • List of Citric Acid Products
  • Citric Acid Sour Salt
  • Accelerade Sports Drink

Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Citric Acid Anhydrous
  • Citric acid, Monohydrate
  • Citric acid
  • Veggie Power Data Sheet
  • Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc. Msds
  • Chemtrec Msds for Citric Acid
  • Safety data for citric acid, monohydrate


  • Guide for Citric Acid
  • Study Guide for Citric Acid Cycle
  • FAQs About Citric Acid
  • Recycling waste water - China
Technology and Technique
  • Clean Manufacturing Technology of Citric Acid
  • Fruit sugar preserves technology
  • Aspergillus Biotechnology
  • Citric Acid Production Technology
  • Vogelbusch Citric Acid Process Technology
  • Citric Acid Technology
  • Sewage Treatment Plant Sludge: Potential Microorganism for Citric Acid Production
  • Citric Acid Recycling using Novel Technique


  • Extraction of Citric Acid
  • Process for the Fermentative Production of Citric Acid
  • Production of Citric Acid
  • Manufacturing of Citric Acid from Olefins
  • Process for the production of an alkali metal citrate
  • Herbicidal composition consisting essentially of acetic acid and citric acid

Plant and Projects

  • Citric Acid Recovery Plant
  • Citric Acid Project
  • Optimization of parameters for citric acid production from cheddar cheese
  • Kasel Project Citric Acid- Iran
  • Citric acid to reduce acrylamide formation in French fries and roasted potatoes
  • 100kt/a citric acid project
  • Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes

Equipments Suppliers

  • Design & Plant Constructions  
  • Chemical Processing Equipment Suppliers
  • Rotary Dryers Suppliers
  • Citric Acid Equipments Suppliers in UK


  • India: China’s largest citric acid export destination
  • World Market for Citric Acid
  • Cartel Formation
  • Citric Acid Market
  • ADM closes citric acid plant as Chinese competition bites
  • Citric acid firms raise prices as supply shortage threatens market
  • New project - Saudi
  • Imports from China & Canada - Dumping
  • Chinese Producers
  • Competition
  • Falling citric acid prices claim Belgian casualties
  • Citric Acid Market Conditions
  • Market Reports for sale - contact information


  • Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus niger
  • Influence of Diet on the Endogenous Production of Citric Acid
  • Lipase Secretion and Citric Acid Production
  • Roche inaugurates new production plant for citric acid in China
  • Citric Acid Report
  • Citric Acid Case Study
  • Gadot forges Chinese joint venture for citric acid

Manufacturers and Suppliers

  • Citric Acid Suppliers Directory
  • Citric Acid Suppliers
  • Citric Acid Exporters
  • Foreign Suppliers of Citric Acid
  • Indian Suppliers of Citric Acid
  • Indian Exporters of Citric Acid
  • Trade Leads of Citric Acid
  • Maharashtra Industry Directory of Citric Acid
  • Manufacturers of Citric Acid
  • Qingdao Sanqingfood Group Corp
  • Selling Leads of Citric Acid
  • Suppliers of Citric Acid
  • Exporters of Citric Acid


  • Foreign Buyers of Citric Acid
  • International Distributor
  • Indian Buyers Of Citric Acid
  • Citric Acid Buyers Lists

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