SiGe, Germanium Detector, Radio, Processing, Recycling, Regulatory Issues and Industry

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  • Germanium is a hard grayish-white element. It has a metallic luster and the same crystal structure as diamond but is brittle like glass.
  • Germanium is mainly a byproduct of zinc ore processing in Alaska and Tennessee. Germanium refineries were in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.
  • Germanium has been commercially retrieved from coal ash. Coal ash might one day become a significant source of germanium.
  • Germanium is a semiconductor, which means it has electrical properties between those of a metal and an insulator, and has many interesting electronic applications.
  • Germanium concentrates are chlorinated with concentrated hydrochloric acid or chlorine gas to produce germanium tetrachloride (GeCl4).
  • SiGe involves a revolutionary process technology in which the electrical properties of silicon are augmented with germanium to make the chips operate more efficiently.
  • Germanium detectors are semiconductor diodes having a p-i-n structure.
  • High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are frequently used to detect gamma rays in energy spectroscopy and related fields because of their unparalleled resolving power and high photon detection efficiency.
  • Germanium metal, high purity, is received for storage in the form of ingots which shall have a uniform trapezoidal shape.
  • Germanium metal is not appreciably affected by water, fifty percent sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid.
  • Germanium is of limited availability with few suppliers. At times, demand for germanium compounds has exceeded supply.
  • Important uses are chemotherapy, electronics/solar electrical applications, fiber-optic systems, infrared optics, metallurgy, phosphors and polymerization catalysts.
  • The major producers of germanium are Belgium, China, and Russia.
  • Ge
  • Background
  • Sources and  Properties
  • Arsenic-Doped
  • Electron Band Structure
  • Germanium-On-Insulator
  • Kovové Germanium
  • Zinc Germanium Phosphide
  • Ge Based Linker
  • Resistance Thermometers
  • Germanium Diode
  • Quantum Dots
  • Germanium Audio File

Silicon Germanium

  • SiGe Alloy
  • BICMOS Process
  • Microprocessor
  • Polycrystalline Silicon Germanium
  • Silicon–Germanium Gives
  • Germanium/Silicon Ratios
  • Transport in SiGe

Germanium Detector

  • Germanium Detectors
  • Sensitive Germanium Detector-3-Dimensional
  •  Far-Infrared
  • Efficiency and Resolution
  • Detector Array
  • Gamma-ray Tracking
  • Gamma-ray Measurement
  • Germanium Strip Detectors
  • CMOS Readout System
  • Matching Ge Detector
  • X-Ray Spectroscopy
  • Double-SOI photodetectors

High Purity Germanium

  • HPGe Material and Detectors
  • HPGe Crystal
  • HPGe Diodes
  • HPGe Detectors
  • Clover Detector


  • AM Radio
  • Crystal Radio
  • Radio Chemistry
  • Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits

Processing and Recycling

  • Processing Technology
  • Ge Mixed-Signal
  • Mineral Processing Sectors
  • Recycling-US
  • Metallic Ion Beam
  • Storage of Germanium Metal



  • Polyester Catalyst Technology
  • Mixed-Signal/RF Technology
  • BICMOS Technology
  • SiGe Technology

Market Strategies

  • Markets, Trends and Events
  • Germanium Refinery
  • Market Overview
  • Trends and Future Projections
  • World Market
  • Market Outlook
  • Price of Germanium

Regulatory Issues

  • Germanium Dioxide
  • Germanium Tetrachloride
  • Draft Food Supplements
  • Use Statistics
  • Benefits of Germanium
  • SiGe Semiconductors
  • Strained SiGe MOSFET
  • Ge Substrates

Surveys, Reports and Reviews

  • Domestic Survey
  • Mineral Commodity Profile
  • Revised Review
  • Annual Report
  • Germanium Nanowires


  • Conference Scientific Program
  • Symposium
  • National Naofabrication

Germanium Industry

  • Portable Radiation Detector-Industry
  • Research Institute-Singapore
  • Germanium Bracelet
  • Yaksan
  • Optical Fibre Industry
  • Heterostructures in Electronics
  • Atomic Layer Deposition of Hafnium Oxide



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