Caustic Soda
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  • Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base.
  • Caustic soda forms a strong alkaline solution when dissolved in a solvent such as water.
  • Pure sodium hydroxide is a white solid; available in pellets, flakes, granules and as a 50% saturated solution.
  • It is deliquescent and readily absorbs carbon dioxide from the air, so it should be stored in an airtight container.
  • It is very soluble in water with liberation of heat. It also dissolves in ethanol and methanol, though it exhibits lower solubility in these solvents than potassium hydroxide. It is insoluble in ether and other non-polar solvents.
  • A sodium hydroxide solution will leave a yellow stain on fabric and paper.
  • Sodium hydroxide is completely ionic, containing sodium ions and hydroxide ions. The hydroxide ion makes sodium hydroxide a strong base which reacts with acids to form water and the corresponding salts.
  • Sodium hydroxide slowly reacts with glass to form sodium silicate, so glass joints and stopcocks exposed to NaOH have a tendency to "freeze". Flasks and glass-lined chemical reactors are damaged by long exposure to hot sodium hydroxide, and the glass becomes frosted.
  • Sodium hydroxide does not attack iron or copper, but other metals such as aluminium, zinc and titanium are attacked rapidly.
  • Liquid caustic soda is manufactured by electrolysis of purified and concentrated brine using mercury, diaphragm or membrane cell technology.
  • The principal method used for the manufacture of sodium hydroxide is electrolytic dissociation of sodium chloride. During this process chlorine gas is produced as a co product. Another method used for its manufacture is a soda- lime process. In this process a concentrated solution of sodium carbonate (soda) is reacted with calcium hydroxide (slaked lime). Calcium carbonate precipitates out, leaving a sodium hydroxide solution.
  • Modern methods of sodium hydroxide manufacture use electrolysis, the process of converting ions into elements by means of an electric current. The process can still be called an oxidation, since the negative charge on the chlorine ion is removed by causing it to come into contact with the anode of the cell.
  • Sodium hydroxide is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts, for example in petroleum refining it is used to remove sulfuric and organic acids.
  • It is also used to hydrolyze fats in the production of soaps, and in the manufacture of rayon, textiles, and cellophane.
  • Other uses include the manufacturing of plastics by dissolving casein, in reclaiming rubber by dissolving out the fabric, peeling fruits and vegetables in food production and in vegetable oil refining, and etching and electroplating.
  • Sodium hydroxide also has applications in chemical and metal processing, the pulp and paper industry, disinfection, and to dehorn cattle.
  • Caustic soda is used in a wide variety of industrial applications. It is used as a reactant in the manufacture of other sodium compounds which themselves may be intermediate or end-use products, such as sodium hypochlorite which is used as a household bleach and disinfectant and sodium phenolate which is used in antiseptics and for the manufacture of Aspirin.
  • It is used in the manufacturing process of soaps and surfactants for used in soap powders and also in the textile industry to remove contaminants, as a bleach in the treatment of scoured cloth and to improve luster and dye absorption.
  • Caustic soda is also heavily traded, especially in aqueous form. The United States routinely exports about 10–15% of its production. The Middle East exports about 50% of its caustic. Some of the bigger importing countries are Australia, Jamaica and Surinam, which are among the leading producers of aluminum (a leading use for caustic soda).
  • The chlor-alkali industry is in the profitable phase of the commodity cycle, with demand rising in 2004, and prices rising considerably in 2004–2005.
  • The competitive advantages of the United States in chlor-alkali production have largely vanished with the steep increase in energy prices, and so it is expected that little new capacity will be built to support export-oriented facilities.
  • Globally, there is relatively little new capacity coming on stream in the next few years, except in China, which should lead to attractive industry profitability at least through 2006, and may prompt producers in all regions to reinvest again in the business.
  • Demand for caustic soda in chemical production is strong led by propylene oxide, polycarbonates and epoxies in the organics sector and calcium hypochlorite, sulfur chemicals and titanium dioxide among the inorganics.
  • Direct applications, which account for more than half of the total caustic market, are steady.
General Information
  • Sodium Hydroxide
  • Properties
  • Sodium Hydroxide & Potassium Hydroxide
  • Physical Properties of Sodium Hydroxide
  • Caustic Soda


  • Caustic soda technical liquid
  • Caustic Soda Lye
  • Solid Caustic Soda Micropearls
  • PELS Caustic Soda
  • Caustic Soda Prills
  • Sodagrain

Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Caustic Soda
  • Pels® Caustic Soda Beads
  • Drilling Mud Additive
  • Caustic Soda Liqour
  • Sodium hydrate
  • Caustic Soda Solution
  • Soda Lye


  • Chlor-Alkali Technology
  • Alumina Technology Roadmap
  • Emerging Techniques
  • Pollution Prevention Technologies in Bleaching Operations
  • Technical Directory


  • Electrolytic Production of Chlorine and Caustic Soda
  • Method for treating mine water using caustic soda
  • Process for the Manufacture of Caustic Soda
  • Process for Producing Chlorine and Caustic Soda
  • Removal of Chlorate from Caustic Soda
  • Vertical Diaphragm type Apparatus for Caustic Soda Production
  • Purification of Caustic Soda
  • Process for Purifying  Sodium Hydroxide
  • Process for the manufacture of Sodium Hydroxide
  • Process for the Regeneration of Sodium Hydroxide from Sodium Sulphide

Production Process

  • Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions
  • Liquid Caustic Soda - Mercury - Production Process
  • Production Process
  • Caustic Soda Production
  • Manufacturing Process
  • Caustic Soda Production Process
  • Solid Caustic Soda Production Process
  • Process Description

Plant Details

  • Plant in Thailand
  • Chlorine Caustic Soda Plants
  • Plant in Karaikal
  • Expression of Interest (EOI) for Setting up Caustic Soda Plant
  • Plant in Gujarat
  • Caustic Soda Plant
  • Caustic Soda Production Plant


  • Caustic Soda/PVC/Soda Ash Production Project
  • Caustic Soda Manufacture
  • Reduction in consumption of electricity by recovering soda from paper manufacturing process
  • Expression of Interest (EOI) for Setting up Caustic Soda Plant
  • Caustic Soda Plant
  • Replacement of Single Stage Evaporator with 3-stage Evaporator in Caustic Soda Recovery Plant
  • Caustic Soda and Utility Engineering Renovation


  • Caustic soda: Outlook for Asia
  • Bihar Caustic enters market with rights issue
  • Caustic Soda Demands Set to Rise
  • World Consumption
  • The Demand For Caustic Soda And Chlorine Is Forecast To Rise
  • Ecological and economic profile of the caustic-chlorine industry
  • The Global Scenario
  • Long-term market reactions to changes in demand for NaOH
  • Market Outlook
  • Volatile caustic soda mart starts to settle down


  • Applications
  • Caustic Soda Applications
  • Caustic Soda Chemistry and End Product Uses
  • Application Areas
  • Eucalyptus Soap
  • Uses
Company Profiles
  • Company in Ahmedabad
  • Company in Tamil Nadu
  • Company in Michigan
  • Company in Vadodara
  • Company in Delhi
  • Company in North America
  • Another Company in Delhi
  • Company in Haryana
  • Company in Mumbai


  • Centrifuge Pumps Suppliers
  • Electric Winch and Elevator Manufacturer
  • Evaporators
  • Rotary Table Feeders Suppliers
  • Rotary Feeder Suppliers
  • Polishing Filter
  • Reaction Tank
  • Rotary vacuum filter Suppliers
  • Rotary drum slaker Suppliers
  • Storage Tank Suppliers
  • Vacuum filter Suppliers
  • Vertical Shaft Kiln

Raw Material Suppliers

  • Alpha Cellulose
  • Alpha Cellulose Suppliers
  • Barium Carbonate  Suppliers
  • Flocculants Manufacturers & Suppliers
  • Hydrochloric Acid Suppliers
  • Ion Exchange Resins Suppliers
  • Ion Exchange Resin Manufacturers & Suppliers
  • Supplier
  • Sodium Carbonate Manufacturers & Suppliers
  • Sodium Chloride Suppliers
  • Sodium Sulphite

Safety Issues

  • Key Steps in Safe Use of Chemicals
  • Safety Hydroxide
  • Safe Handling of
    Caustic Soda
  • Safety Directions
  • Liquid Caustic Soda Storage


  • General Storage System Guidelines
  • Hazards During Chemicals
    in Use and Safety Guidelines
  • An Overview Of The Chemical Manufacturing Industry
  • Know the risks of caustic soda, an essential chemical: Solvay takes part
  • Hazardous Materials: Sodium Hydroxide Safe Handling Guideline
  • Caustic Soda Solution General Storage System Guidelines
  • The Role Of Alkalinity
    In Aerobic Wastewater Treatment Plants

Risks and Hazards

  • Risk Assessment Report
  • Technical Support Document
  • Chemical Profile
  • Hazard Rankings
  • Toxic Spill in Brazil

Rules and Regulations

  • Anti-dumping Duty on Sodium Hydroxide
  • Regulations
  • R.E.D Facts
  • Poisons License
  • Notification
  • Environmental Standards


  • New Electrolysis Plant for Manufacture of Caustic Soda and Chlorine Opens in Germany
  • Oxy - Annual Report
  • Company Report
  • Caustic Soda Industry
  • Juvenile corrosive esophagitis due
    to accidental caustic soda ingestion
  • Tata - Annual Report


  • USA Consultant
  • Experts
  • Edgecomb Consultant
  • Belarus Consultant
  • Indian Consultant
  • California Consultant


  • Buyers List - 1
  • Buyers List - 2
  • Buyers List - 3


  • Caustic Soda  Suppliers
  • Caustic Soda Manufacturers
  • Chinese Suppliers
  • Caustic Soda Manufacturers
  • Caustic Soda Flakes
  • Supplier
  • Caustic Soda Exporters


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Primary Information Services
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