Petroleum Refining
Refining, Technology, Applications, Patent, Consultants, Company Profiles, Reports, Market, Projects, Guides

Primary Information Services
Home. Naphthenes . Naphthenic acids . Petroleum Jelly . Petroleum Coke . Petrol Station .
Ordering Information. Contact

Information @ a Glance

Contents on the CD Rom

  • Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring liquid found in formations in the Earth consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons (mostly alkanes) of various lengths. The approximate length range is C5H12 to C18H38. Any shorter hydrocarbons are considered natural gas or natural gas liquids, while longer hydrocarbon chains are more solid, and the longest chains are coal.
  • In its naturally occurring form, it may contain other nonmetallic elements such as sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. It is usually black or dark brown  but varies greatly in appearance, depending on its composition. Crude oil may also be found in semi-solid form mixed with sand, as in the Athabasca oil sands in Canada, where it may be referred to as crude bitumen.
  • Petroleum is used mostly, by volume, for producing fuel oil and gasoline (petrol), both important "primary energy" sources. 84% (37 of 42 gallons in a typical barrel) of the hydrocarbons present in petroleum is converted into energy-rich fuels , including gasoline, diesel, jet, heating, and other fuel oils, and liquefied petroleum gas.
  • Due to its high energy density, easy transportability and relative abundance, it has become the world's most important source of energy since the mid-1950s. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including solvents, fertilizers, pesticides, and plastics; the 16% not used for energy production is converted into these other materials.
  • Petroleum is found in porous rock formations in the upper strata of some areas of the Earth's crust. Known reserves of petroleum are typically estimated at around 1.2 trillion barrels with at least one estimate as high as 3.74 trillion barrels. Consumption is currently around 84 million barrels per day, or 4.9 trillion liters per year. Because of reservoir engineering difficulties, recoverable oil reserves are significantly less than total oil-in-place. At current consumption levels, current known reserves would be gone in about 32 years, around 2039. However, this ignores any new discoveries, changes in demand, better technology, population growth, industrialization of third world countries, and other factors.
  • The most common method of obtaining petroleum is extracting it from oil wells found in oil fields. Primary recovery methods are used to extract oil that is brought to the surface by underground pressure, and can generally recover about 20% of the oil present. After the oil pressure has depleted to the point that the oil is no longer brought to the surface, secondary recovery methods draw another 5 to 10% of the oil in the well to the surface. Finally, when secondary oil recovery methods are no longer viable, tertiary recovery methods reduce the viscosity of the oil in order to bring more to the surface.
  • The chemical structure of petroleum is composed of hydrocarbon chains of different lengths. Because of this, petroleum may be taken to oil refineries and the hydrocarbon chemicals separated by distillation and treated by other chemical processes, to be used for a variety of purposes.
  • A recent low point was reached in January 1999, after increased oil production from Iraq coincided with the Asian financial crisis, which reduced demand. The prices then rapidly increased, more than doubling by September 2000, then fell until the end of 2001 before steadily increasing, reaching US $40 to US $50 per barrel by Septembers 2004.In October 2004, light crude futures contracts on the NYMEX for November delivery exceeded US $53 per barrel and for December delivery exceeded US $55 per barrel. Crude oil prices surged to a record high above $60 a barrel in June 2005, sustaining a rally built on strong demand for gasoline and diesel and on concerns about refiners' ability to keep up. This trend continued into early August 2005, as NYMEX crude oil futures contracts surged past the $65 mark as consumers kept up the demand for gasoline despite its high price.
 General Information
  • Coal
  • Fossil fuel
  • Petroleum
  • History of petroleum
  • Petroleum industry

Refining Process

  • Oil refinery
  • Oil refining
  • Petroleum refining
  • Petroleum refining processes
  • Petroleum refining corrosion
  • Petroleum refining and fuels
  • Refining of petroleum

Company Profiles

  • BP p.l.c.
  • Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited
  • China National Petroleum Corporation
  • Coffeyville Resources
  • Engineers India Limited
  • Global Companies LLC
  • Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation Ltd.
  • Haycock Petroleum
  • Marathon Petroleum Company
  • O’Rourke Petroleum
  • Petroleum India International
  • Qatar Petroleum
  • RKA Petroleum Companies
  • The Ministry of petroleum & Natural gas


  • Experts in petroleum
  • Experts in petroleum engineering
  • Experts in petroleum products
  • Experts in petroleum production
  • Petroleum consulting & services
  • Ensys Energy
  • GLJ Petroleum Consultants Ltd
  • Laroche petroleum consultants
  • MHA petroleum consulting
  • Netherland, Sewell & Associates, Inc.
  • Rakhit petroleum consulting Ltd.
  • Refining Process Services
  • Russian Petroleum Consultants Corporation & RPC Overseas, Inc.
  • Ryder Scott
  • Sproule
  • United Petroleum Consultants

Plants and Project

  • Hydra-cell Diaphragm pump products
  • Distillation systems
  • Hydrogen gas purifier
  • Feasibility study for a petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla apache tribe
  • Petroleum-project fact sheet
  • Profile of the petroleum refining industry
  • Tank 632 project
  • Modern refining of petroleum
  • Petroleum refining-Case studies

Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Oz-BugZz8 pesticide & hydrocarbon degraders
  • Petroleum, solvent-refined heavy paraffinic
  • CO-OP 1k Kerosene
  • Propane
  • Blended reformate/ Raffinate
  • Thomas HDMO 40
  • Petroleum ether
  • CITGO Lubricants MSDS
  • Mallinckrodt chemicals-petroleum ether
  • Safety data for petroleum ether
  • Petroleum Ether  Reagent A.C.S
  • Malco Products, Inc.MSDS
  • General petroleum super passenger car motor oil


  • List 1 of petroleum products
  • List 2 of petroleum products
  • List 3 of petroleum products
  • List 4 of petroleum products
  • Petroleum and petroleum products


  • Partial oxidation of petroleum coke
  • Conversion of petroleum residua to methane
  • Method of disinfecting petroleum and petroleum products
  • Process for the production of petroleum coke
  • Petroleum pumping unit
  • Recovery of petroleum
  • Petroleum resins
  • Method for combustion of petroleum and solid wastes
  • Petroleum stream analyzer
  • Petroleum sulphonates
  • Treatment of waste petroleum
  • Process for the hydroisomerization of  petroleum waxes
  • Hybrids separations/Distillation technology
  • Uses of stable isotopes in petroleum
  • Energy bandwidth for petroleum refining processes
  • Photonics technologies
  • Integrated control and asset management of petroleum production facilities
  • Petroleum refining technologies


  • Everyday uses of oil
  • Uses of LPG
  • Petroleum uses
  • Uses and availability of petroleum and its products
  • Petroleum and petrochemical waste reuse in cement kilns


  • Cold cracking of petroleum crude oil
  • Our century of fossil fuel energy:1950-2050
  • Foreign market of oil and gas
  • Standardization of petroleum equipment in China
  • Overview of petroleum market
  • APPEA national conference
  • Overview of oil refining in Africa
  • History and production of oil
  • Indian and International petroleum market
  • Petroleum products market
  • U.S. petroleum refining and gasoline marketing industry


  • ARRC annual report
  • Crude oil report
  • MRPL annual report
  • Petrochina annual report
  • Petroleum product consumption and refining
  • Louisiana crude oil refinery survey report
  • Petroleum report-Indonesia
  • Engineers India appointed HPCL project consultant
  • This week in petroleum-May 31,2007

Manufacturers and Suppliers

  • Petroleum suppliers
  • United Arab Emirates suppliers of petroleum
  • UK suppliers of crude oil
  • Petroleum products suppliers
  • Petroleum products Inc.
  • Light petroleum suppliers
  • LPG suppliers
  • Oil & energy conservation petroleum suppliers
  • Petroleum oil suppliers directory
  • Manufacturers of petroleum chemicals
  • China suppliers of petroleum
  • Manufacturers and suppliers of petroleum
  • Wholesale petroleum suppliers
  • Western Petroleum Company


  • Buying leads of petroleum
  • Importers of petroleum
  • Petroleum products importers directory

Equipment Suppliers

  • ALLSTAR Petroleum Equipment
  • Challenger Process Systems Co.
  • Kerui Group
  • Manufacturers and exporters of petroleum equipments
  • McKinney Petroleum Equipment
  • Petroleum equipment suppliers
  • Petroleum production equipment suppliers
  • Petroleum gas production plant and equipment suppliers
  • Global suppliers of petroleum refinery plant and equipment
  • Patriot Mechanical Handling
  • U. S. Petroleum Equipment

 Safety and Guides

  • Safety guidelines for petroleum-based polymers manufacturing
  • Safety guidelines for petroleum-based organic chemicals manufacturing
  • List of IADC contractor members
  • Technology roadmap for the petroleum industry
  • The need of petroleum
  • Emission estimation technique manual for petroleum refining
  • Petroleum production engineering links

    Order the CD ROM Today

Primary Information Services
 21 Murugappan St, SwamyNagar Ext2, 
Ullagaram, Chennai - 600091, India.
 Phone: 91 44 22421080 
Email :
Mobile numbers:9940043898, 9444008898  Fax : 91 44 22423753