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Project at a Glance

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  • Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate generally impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite, (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg) 2Si4O10(OH)2·(H2O)n. Two types exist: swelling bentonite which is also called sodium bentonite and non-swelling bentonite or calcium bentonite. It forms from weathering of volcanic ash, most often in the presence of water.
  • Bentonite can be used in cement, adhesives, ceramic bodies, cosmetics and cat litter. Fuller's earth, an ancient dry cleaning substance, is finely ground bentonite, typically used for purifying transformer oil. Bentonite, in small percentages, is used as an ingredient in commercially designed clay bodies and ceramic glazes. Bentonite clay is also used in pyrotechnics to make end plugs and rocket nozzles, and can also be used as a therapeutic face pack for the treatment of acne/oily skin.
  • Bentonite is employed by industry to perform a multitude of jobs. Most industrial applications involve the swelling property of bentonite to form viscous water suspensions. Depending upon the relative proportions of clay and water, these mixtures are used as bonding, plasticizing, and suspending agents. Bentonites react chemically with many organic materials to form compounds which are used chiefly as gelling agents in a variety of organic liquids.
  • The USA, China and Greece account for about 53% of world production, whilst Western Europe accounts for 27 percent. The principal world markets for bentonite are in foundry, oil drilling and cat litter uses. Major exporting countries, in descending order of volume, are Greece, USA, Italy, the Netherlands and China, accounting for about 65% of world bentonite exports.
  • During the last few years the global demand in volume terms has grown at a rate of about 3%, per year. Exported bentonite is mainly used in iron ore pelletizing (36%), in foundries (33%), in civil engineering and environmental applications (21%), in drilling (6%) and as pet litter material (4%).
  • The major bentonite producer worldwide is the United States of America (ca 2 mil. tons/year), which produces bentonites of the highest quality worldwide, and also possesses considerable reserves of natural Na-bentonites. Other significant bentonite producers are the states of the former Soviet Union (around 1.7 mil. tons/year), probably China (estimated production of around 1.5 mil. tons/year), the German Federal Republic (800 kt/year), Greece (600 kt/year), Japan (570 kt/yer), followed by Italy, Spain, India, Turkey and other countries
  • The Czech Republic extracts around 70 kt of bentonite per year, which amounts approximately to 0.75 % of the world bentonite production. Among bentonite producers in the Czech Republic, there are Keramost, a. s. (the biggest Czech producer of bentonites), Calofrig Borovany, a. s., Sedlecky kaolin, a. s. and others. Numerous unexploited deposits are managed by Geofond, Czech Republic.
  • Although there are 16 operating bentonite mines in Japan as of 2005, there are less than ten places where mines operate year-round. The largest bentonite production area is the Yamagata-Miyagi region; the production reaches nearly one half of the total bentonite production. Next is the Gunma-Niigata region. The bentonite mines in the Shimane region are generally small scale.
  • During the last few years the global demand in volume terms has grown at a rate of about 3%, per year. Exported bentonite is mainly used in iron ore pelletizing (36%), in foundries (33%), in civil engineering and environmental applications (21%), in drilling (6%) and as pet litter material (4%).
  • Bentonite consumption for civil engineering and environmental applications shows a significant increase over the last few years, in view of the growing social awareness for environmental protection and rehabilitation.
  • The major raw materials required for the production of bentonite are raw ore (raw bentonite), sulfuric acid (98%) and calcium oxide
  • The major utilities required for the operation of the plant are electricity, water, steam and LPG (liquefied petroleum gas).
  • The production process of Bentonite essentially involves the following operations. The crude clay is mixed with water to form a suspension to which sulfuric acid is added. The mixture is then heated by steam in a mixing tank up to a temperature of 40oc and kept at this temperature for about 4 hours. Then the mixture is heated to 180oc for one hour. After cooling the suspension is filtered through a filter press and washed in order to eliminate excess acidity. The cake of the activated earth is then dried through a pneumatic conveyor by hot air (700oc). The product is collected in a depot and then packed
  • To establish a plant for the production of 300 tons of Bentonite processing plant, total investment required is estimated to be around  1.5 million USD
General Information
  • Fuller's Earth Occurrence and Composition
  • What is Bentonite?
  • Bentonite
  • Bentonite Chemical Analysis
  • Toolbox talk


  • Effect of Amendments on Chemical Properties of Bentonite Mine Spoil
  • Structure & Properties of Bentonite
  • Rheological Properties of Bentonite Suspensions
  • Bentonite Slurry Specifications
  • Determination of Swelling Index of Bentonite
  • Behaviour of humic-bentonite aggregates
  • Rheology and structure of aqueous bentonite
  • Absorption of the Quaternanry Ammonium Salts on Bentonite
  • Characterization of bentonite
  • Effect of Amendments on Chemical Properties of Bentonite Mine Spoil
  • Sealing Properties of Bentonite Suspensions
  • Absorption Properties of Zeolite and Bentonite Applied to Pig Slurry
  • Synthesis and characterization of
    organic bentonite


  • Safety Data Sheet - Fuller's Earth
  • Hydrobond
  • Bentonite Hydrogel - MSDS
  • National Standard Bentonite
  • Bara - Kade Standard - Soil Sealing Grade
  • National Standard Bentonite - PG
  • Vitiben Fine
  • Agri - Flex
  • Bondtone - Organophilic Clay powder
  • National Standard Bentonite - Foundry Grade
  • Natural Bentonite Gel


  • AquaBlok® Composite Particle Technology
  • Cement-Bentonite Grout Backfill for Borehole Instruments
  • Heavy load emplacement technology
  • Cement Bentonite Thin Diaphragm Wall
  • Mixshield Technology
  • Advanced Waterproofing Technology
  • New On-site Wet Milling Technology


  • Composting of bentonite wastes
  • Clay Processing
  • Drying bentonite in a rotary kiln
  • Immobilization of industrial waste in cement–bentonite clay matrix
  • Bentonite Waterproofing


  • Bentonite production worldwide
  • Bentonite Mining Initiatives
  • Bentonite Production
  • Fuller's Earth Production
  • Production tax rates imposed on bentonite production

Company Profiles and Plant Details

  • Amcol Paper Technology
  • Amrfeo Pte. Ltd
  • BPM Minerals LLC
  • Wyo - Ben Inc.,
  • Industry Links
  • Lovchand Amarchand
  • MMTC
  • Montana Bentonite, LLC
  • AMCOL International Corporation
  • Black Hills Bentonite
  • S&B Industrial Minerals acquires bentonite processing plant in Germany

Market and its Future

  • Mineral Status and Future Opportunity
  • Fuller's Earth Demand
  • Industrial Clays Case Study
  • Mineral Resource
  • The Economic Importance of Mineral Production
  • Bentonite in Japan –Geology and Industries–
  • Investment Opportunities
  • S&B Industrial Minerals
  • Market Study of Bentonite Products
  • Process for Beneficiating Bentonite
  • Process for Manufacturing Bentonite - Containing Particulate Fabric Softening Detergent Composition
  • Compacted bentonite-based absorbents
  • Drill hole plugging method utilizing sodium bentonite nodules
  • Liquid slurry of bentonite
  • Process for Manufacturing Bentonite Agglomerates
  • Modified Bentonite
  • Process for Producting Bentonite Clays Exhibiting Enhanced Solution Viscosity Properties

Applications and its Benefits

  • Industrial Applications of Bentonite
  • Bentonite Uses
  • Bentonite - Manifold Uses
  • A fascinating natural substance and its application in beverage treatment
  • End Use Statistics
  • Bentonite In Construction
  • Tunnel Manufacturing
  • Proposed Uses of Cement and Bentonite in Repositories
  • Oversized Predrilled Pile Holes and Bentonite Grout for Reduction of Pile Downdrag
  • Potential of Malaysian Local Bentonite Applications in an Oil - Well Cement Industry
  • Bentonite for Wine Clarification
  • Bentonite Benefits in Paper Applications
  • Bentonite Benefits


  • Project Profile - sample
  • Bentonite Processing Plants Supplier
  • USA Equipment
  • Automation software
  • Bentonite Barriers in Integrated Performance Assessment - BENIPA Project
  • Mantuan Downs Bentonite Project
  • Bentonite barriers in integrated performance assessment
  • FP5 Project Record
  • Mixing Soil & Bentonite
  • Nigerian Bentonite


  • Bentonite Suppliers
  • Bentonite Directory
  • Bentonite Suppliers Directory
  • Bentonite Powder Suppliers
  • Industries
  • Bentonite Manufacturers & Suppliers


  • Bentonite Buy Offers
  • Foreign Importers & Buyers
  • Indian Importers & Buyers
  • Bentonite Buyers List 1
  • Bentonite Buyers List 2


  •  Aqua Sierra, Inc.
  • CCS Energy & Environment
  • Experts in bentonite
  • George C. Hawley & Associates
  • Peter W. Harben Inc.
  • RJH Consultants, Inc
  • Aust – Asia Consultancy Services
  • Texas Sodium Bentonite, Inc.


  • EXITO’s Report
  • Skin & eye irritation studies performed on bentonite
  • Cement Bentonite Slurry Trench Guide Specifications
  • Studies of bentonite and red soils as capping of the uranium mill tailing impoundments
  • Physico-chemical characterisation and geochemical modelling
  • Bentonite, Pyrophyllite and Talc in the Republic of South Africa
  • Bentonite Treatment For Economical Dust Reduction

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Primary Information Services
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Ullagaram, Chennai - 600091, India.
 Phone: 91 44 22421080 
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