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Contents on the CD Rom

  • Digital storage technology is a shining example of the highly successful collaboration between functional organic chemistry, physics, electronics and engineering. The latest products resulting from this collaboration are the 4.7 GB highspeed (4x/2.4x) recordable digital versatile discs (DVD-R/ DVD+R) currently available on the market.
  • The DVD-R is manufactured from a clear layer of polycarbonate plastic which provides a stable base and gives the DVD physical strength. Above the polycarbonate (usually a dark green) base is a thin layer of laser sensitive dye and atop that, a thin reflective layer that reflects the laser beam back to the read head. Next is added a protective lacquer coating to which a hard polymer based coat is added to guard against scratches.
  • Due to insufficient drying for the disc, some amount of solvent remains in the dye layer. After covered by reflector, when irradiated by laser, the solvent gets active in the dye layer by heating energy. More than 90% of solvent is evaporating within few seconds at a rapid speed when the disc enter into dry chamber. The tunnel alike capillary is formed in the dye layer caused by rapid evaporation of solvent. Also, the solvent evaporates together with some dye brought out from dye layer.
  • The most important component of a recordable DVD is its dye layer. Among the dyes commonly used for such purposes are cyanines, azo-dyes, subphthalocyanines, benzopyrromethenes, etc.  AZO is used to produce a recording layer with a greater sensitivity that ensures stability at faster recording speeds such as 4x and 8x. This recording layer is critical in maintaining the high success rate.
  • Oxonol dyes have an anionic chromophore based on a vinylogous carboxylate conjugate system, in which the terminal CO2 and CLO are often constituents of heterocycles. Cyanine is a non-systematic name of a synthetic dye family with the common molecular formula: ArN+=CH[CH=CH]n=NAr where two quaternized nitrogens are joined by a poly-methine chain. Both nitrogens are each independently part of a heteroaromatic moiety, such as imidazole, pyridine, pyrrole, quinoline, thiazole, etc.
  • Although azo dyes are not very toxic to human beings and although only a few azo dyes may cause allergic reactions, twenty-two of the degradation products - called aromatic amines - may be carcinogenic. Dyes based on these chemical compounds are not for sale on the Danish market, but may be found in imported products. 
  • The global DVD-R market has grown rapidly in recent years. It is expected that 2.3 billion DVD-R discs will be produced in 2004. Recording (burning) speed is always the key factor that leads the CD-R or DVD-R market. Compared with CD-R discs that currently reach 52x burning speed, the burning speed of DVD-R discs is still lingering at 16x. Higher burning speed results in shorter burning time. 
General Information
  • Cyanine
  • Information on CD Dye
  • A new class of light-fast oxonol dyes
  • Azo Dye Media
  • Mass Spectrometry of Oligomeric Cyanines and Squaraines of the Indole Series 
  • Dye layers for CD-R or DVD-R
  • Syntheses and nonlinear absorption of novel unsymmetrical cyanines 
  • Cyanine Dyes for Organic Photovoltaics
  • Digital Versatile Disk
  • Mining the Gold Under Your Feet


  • Self Optimizing Dye Coating Process
  • Groove Forming and Dye Fill Grade
  • Dye OD Closed Loop Control for CD-R Production
  • DPS Dye Solution Auto Processing System
  • Closed Loop Control for DVD-R Production
  • Inline production control of DVD Recordable formats
  • Production Process of R-DVD
  • Dye in DVD Construction
  • Unstable coating
  • Amount of Dye Organic Dye for Coating Process
  • Important factors for Drying
  • Drops dye solution from dispending nozzle
  • 16x Multi-Speed Recording Dye and Process


  • Azo dye properties
  • Dye Properties
  • Hetarylazopyridone Dyes and Their Spectroscopic Properties
  • The synthesis and photophysical properties of polyether substituted phthalocyanines of potential use in photodynamic therapy


  • Apparatus For Recording Dye Based Recordable DVD Media and Process for Recording the Same
  • Dye-Based Recordable DVD Medium and Method and Apparatus for Recording and Reproducing Thereof
  • Laser Reactive Dyes for DVD Copy Protection System
  • Optical Data Carrier Comprising a Phthalocyanine Dye as Light Absorbent Compound in the information Layer
  • Asymmetrical trimethine cyanine dyes for high capacity optical recording medium
  • Optical data carrier comprising a cyanine dye as light-absorbent compound
  • Fast-writable and precision-writable high-capacity optical storage media
  • Cyanine dye
  • Writable High Capacity Optical Storage Media Containing Metal Complexes
Technology and  Project 
  • Dye Based Recordable Technology
  • Nano Cubic Technology
  • ATOMM Technology
  • Fujifilm announces worlds first organic dye for blue-violet optical discs
  • Unitech Japan DVD-R repli-lines
  • Newly developed optical disc technology featuring a unique organic dye enabling DVD-R recording at 1x to 16x speeds
  • Verbatim Project

Company Profiles and Consultants

  • ACTiM Srl
  • Organica Feinchemie GmbH
  • Union Chemical Laboratories
  • DVD-Expert.com
  • Intota

Equipments and Its Suppliers

  • MCL6 system
  • ISM in-line scanner
  • Equipments in Dye Coating Process
  • Acme Media
  • Singulus Emould

Products and  Data Sheet

  • Dye 967
  • Recordable DVD's High Speed Dye 41
  • Light-Blue Dye 1
  • Data sheet for 2,2,3,3-Tetrafluoropropanol

Market and Report

  • Azo dyes examined in Denmark
  • Archival Gold Media
  • The new dyes cast: mapping the CD-R media market - includes related articles - Industry Overview
  • HD DVD - Develop dye for HD DVD-R disc
  • The Dye Laser Disk: CW lasing from a Polymer
  • MRL Developed 4.7 GB DVD-R Dye Formula
  • A Novel Way to Manufacture Organic Dye for DVD-R Optical Recording
  • Critical problem of DVD-R
  • Volume Production Technology of HD DVD-R Discs
  • Dual Layer Recordable DVD
  • DVD Industry Insider Report - The Scoop on DVD-R9 / DVD+R9


  • Azo dyes Suppliers
  • Unitech Japan Inc
  • Cyanines Suppliers
  • Phthalocyanine Manufacturers & Suppliers


  • Care and Handling of CDs and DVDs
  • Blank Media & Quality FAQ

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