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  • A nucleic acid is a complex, high-molecular-weight biochemical macromolecule composed of nucleotide chains that convey genetic information. The most common nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Nucleic acids are found in all living cells and viruses. Artificial nucleic acids include peptide nucleic acid (PNA), Morpholino and locked nucleic acid (LNA), as well as glycol nucleic acid (GNA) and threose nucleic acid (TNA). Each of these is distinguished from naturally occurring DNA or RNA by changes to the backbone of the molecule.
  • The term "nucleic acid" is the generic name of a family of biopolymers, named for their prevalence in cellular nuclei. The monomers from which nucleic acids are constructed are called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of three components: a nitrogenous heterocyclic base,which is either a purine or a pyrimidine; a pentose sugar; and a phosphate group.
  • Different nucleic acid types differ in the structure of the sugar in their nucleotides; DNA contains 2-deoxyriboses while RNA contains ribose. Likewise, the nitrogenous bases found in the two nucleic acids are different: adenine, cytosine, and guanine are in both RNA and DNA, while thymine only occurs in DNA and uracil only occurs in RNA. Other rare nucleic acid bases can occur, for example inosine in strands of mature transfer RNA.
  • Nucleobases are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds containing nitrogen atoms. Nucleobases are the parts of RNA and DNA involved in base pairing. Cytosine, guanine, adenine, thymine are the found predominantly in DNA, while in RNA uracil replaces thymine. These are abbreviated as C, G, A, T, U, respectively.
  • Two main classes exist, named for the molecule which forms their skeleton. These are the double-ringed purines and single-ringed pyrimidines. Adenine and guanine are purines , while cytosine, thymine, and uracil are all pyrimidines.Hypoxanthine and xanthine are mutant forms of adenine and guanine, respectively, created through mutagen presence, through deamination (replacement of the amine-group with a hydroxyl-group).
  • In most living organisms (except for viruses), genetic information is stored in the molecule deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. DNA is made and resides in the nucleus of living cells. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) differs in eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes Eukaryotes contain 28, 18, 5.8 and 5 S rRNAs. S is the sedimentation coefficient, and is a measure of relative size. Prokaryotes contain 23, 16 and 5 S rRNAs.
  • The synthesis of nucleic acids is important not only as a subject of chemistry but also as a method in biological studies.The preparation of oligonucleotides containing modified components is essential to obtain nucleic acid derivatives for investigations of gene functions. Synthetic genes have advantages in the preparation of gene products using bacterial expression systems.
  • The companies in the NA testing field can be divided into three categories. Today, the market is dominated by large diagnostic companies. These companies have internally dedicatedR&Dresources and their own technologies to the analysis of NAs. Roche is the market leader. Since the acquisition of PCR technology from Chiron for USD 300 million, the company has made investments in other methods, too.
  • Abbott Laboratories utilise their Ligase chain reaction (LCR) in their LCx analyser . The test menu consists of STDs (chlamydia, N. gonorrhoea) and respiratory infections. Bayer Diagnostics acquired Chiron Diagnostics in 1998, and the company now offers an extensive portfolio of products for clinical chemistry,  immunodiagnostics and nucleic acid diagnostics.
  • Scientists at the California Institute of Technology in the US have developed a postage stamp-sized chip that can be used to carry out many of the routine steps involved in isolating and purifying nucleic acids from cells. They also note that the chips can be used to test a number of samples in parallel, increasing the throughput of nucleic acid studies without having to rely on laboratory robotics In addition, they and use only a fraction of the reagents needed by current extraction and purification methods, potentially reducing costs.
  • Fuji Photo Film has entered the worldwide nucleic acid extraction marketplace with a product which it claims can deliver DNA whole blood samples in as little as six minutes. The QuickGene-800 is a compact, small footprint, tabletop DNA/RNA isolation system that claims to produce higher yields such as 5.0 u.g compared to the standard 3.5-4.0 u.g. The QuickGene-800 will be available for sale in the US as of March 2005 for $10,000 (€6,600) with pricing for the DNA whole blood kit (96 samples) at $210, DNA from tissues (96 samples) at $225 and RNA from Cultured Cells (96 samples) at $335.
  • Kalorama thought the current world market for nucleic acid therapeutics was small, estimating it at about $1 billion - $5 billion (€769 million - €3.8 billion), its size being an unfair representation of what could be achieved by nucleic acid-based therapeutics.  The number of companies involved in the development of nucleic acid-based therapeutics was also expected to increase over the next two years, largely based on RNAi technology and nucleoside analogs, after which the population is expected to stabilize and decline.
  • Qiagen has sold off its embattled nucleic acid synthesis business in a management buyout, but has retained a minority stake and all activities relating to RNA interference (RNAi), a potent new drug discovery tool. It is estimated that the research market is around $300 million currently and will increase to $400 million in 2005 and $850 million by 2010. The value of the drug discovery market based on RNAi can be assessed at $500 million currently with increase to $650 million in the year 2005 and further doubling to $1 billion in the year 2010. Even if a few products get into the market by the year 2010, this market will expand to $3.5 billion based on revenues from sales of RNAi-based drugs.
 General Information
  • Nucleic Acid
  • Basics of Nucleic Acid
  • Common Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
  • Chemistry of DNA and RNA
  • Nucleic Acid Database
  • Nucleic Acid Conjugates 

Production and Purification

  • Production of Nucleic Acid-related Substances by Fermentative Processes
  • Preparation of Nucleic Acid
  • Nucleic Acid Preparation
  • DNA Manufacturing Process
  • Nucleic acid isolation from moss protonemata
  • A rapid method for isolation of total nucleic acids from Aspergillus nidulans
  • Automated nucleic acid purification
  • Purification of phage nucleic acid
  • Overview of Nucleic Acid Purification and Isolation
  • Purification of Nucleic Acid
  • Genomic DNA Purification
  • Nucleic Acid Purification


  • Nucleic acid synthesis
  • Nucleic Acid Synthesis and Purification
  • Nucleic acid synthesis and Turnover in Tissue Culture
  • Nucleic Acid Synthesis in Microsporocytes of Lilium Cinnabar
  • Nucleic acid synthesis for investigations of gene functions
  • Nucleic acid synthesis in Lactobacillus Casei
  • Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesis by Folie Acid Antagonists

Extraction and Reagents

  • Nucleic Acid extraction by the Boom Method
  • Nucleic Acid Extraction
  • RNA Extraction from Mammalian Tissue
  • Robotic Nucleic Acid Extraction for Influenza Detection
  • Nucleic Acid Extraction and Purification Reagents
  • Nucleid Acid Extraction Reagents


  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization - General Aspects
  • Detection of Aquareovirus RNA in Fish Tissues by Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization for Detection of Cell Culture-Amplified Adenovirus
  •  Nucleic Acid Hybridization Studies within the Genus Cucurbitai
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization for Measurement of Antiviral Compounds on Human Cytomegalovirus
  • Hybridization of Nucleic Acid


  • Nucleic Acid Structure
  • Structure of DNA
  • Structure of Yeast Nucleic Acid
  • Chemical etiology of nucleic acid structure
  • Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acid
  • Nucleic Acid Structure
  • DNA Structure
  • Structure of Double Stranded Nucleic Acids
  • Nucleotide Structure
  • DNA-RNA Structure


  • Functions of Nucleic Acid
  • Function of DNA and RNA
  • Nucleic Acid Functions
  • General Functions of Nucleic Acids
  • Phase Determination of Nucleic Acid X-ray Crystallograph
  • Functions of Nucleic Acid
  • Functions of RNA
  • Functions of DNA


  • Physical and Chemical properties of nucleic acids
  • Properties of Some Plant Virus Nucleic Acid
  • Nucleic Acids: Properties
  • Nucleic acid-binding properties
  • Properties of Sonic Fragments of Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
  • Properties of nucleic acids

Research Centres and Company Profiles

  • Cogenics
  • Mirus
  • Merck
  • Invitrogen
  • Novartis
  • Ocimum Biosolutions
  • Polymorphic DNA Technologies,Inc.
  • Hangzhou Meiya Pharmacy Co.,Ltd.
  • Qiagen
  • SeraCare Life Sciences
  • Transgenomic


  • Asa Ben-Hur
  • Boston Biomedical Consultants, Inc.
  • Charles R. Cantor
  • Creative Information Consultants, Inc
  • Expert in Nucleic Acid
  • Jacqueline R. Wyatt
  • Pier Carlo Montecucchi
  • Mary P. Glackin,


  • Emerging clinical applications of nucleic acids
  • Nucleic Acid Vaccines Against Rickettsial Disease
  • Nucleic acid reactive antibodies—Specificities and applications
  • Nucleic Acids and Its Application
  • Application of Locked Nucleic Acids
  • Application of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) for detection of transcription factors binding probes
  • Peptide nucleic acid (PNA): its medical and biotechnical applications
  • Inhibition of Proteus Swarming by Nucleic Acid Product


  • SYBR Green II nucleic acid gel stain
  • NanoDrop® ND-1000
  • Nucleic acid electrophoresis
  • Nucleic Acid Gel Stain
  • Nucleic Acid Products
  • Nucleic Acid Stains
Technology and Technique
  • Nucleic Acid Technology and Infectious Diseases
  • BBI Nucleic Acid Technology
  • Microfabrication Technologies for Integrated Nucleic Acid Analysis
  • Micro-System for Nucleic Acid Based Pathogen Detection
  • ChargeSwitch® Technology for Nucleic Acid Purification
  • Nucleic Acid Techniques – Mollicute Screening Assay
  • Membrane immobilization of nucleic acids


  • Disposable sample processing module for detecting nucleic acids
  • Method for detecting nucleic acid
  • Assay for nucleic acid ligase and nucleic acid nuclease
  • Stabilizing a nucleic acid for nucleic acid sequencing
  • Method of analyzing nucleic acid
  • Method for the detection of nucleic acids
  • Method for nucleic acid extraction and nucleic acid purification
  • Nucleic acid ligands
  • Process for recovery of nucleic acids


  • Peptide Nucleic Acids as a Novel Cancer Therapeutic Strategy
  • Nucleic Acid Project
  • Nucleic Acid Preparation Project
  • Developing Rapid Nucleic Acid Based Tests for Detection of Endemic Swine Viruses
  • Miniature Integrated Nucleic Acid Diagnostic (MIND(TM)) Development

 Material Safety Data Sheet

  • AquaPlasmidTM Solution
  • AquaPrecipi Solution
  • Nucleic Acid Extraction Kit
  • List of Nucleic Acid Data Sheet
  • Nucleic Acid Isolation System
  • RecoverAll™ Total Nucleic Acid Isolation
  • SafeView™ Nucleic Acid Stain


  • Nucleic Acid Diagnostics Market
  • Fuji develops system for nucleic acid market
  • Nucleic Acid Market Trend
  • Major Healthcare Trends in Europe
  • Novartis to market newly approved Procleix® Tigris® System in U.S. as the first fully automated system for blood screening
  • Nucleic acid drug market
  • Overview of the Current Status of the Nucleic Acid Testing Market in China


  • Effects of Bandwidth and Determination of Nucleic Acid Purity
  • Nucleic Acid Company Report
  • Summary of a Workshop on Implementation of Nucleic Acid Testing
  • Recent Developments in Nucleic Acid Testing used in Blood Screening
  • Nucleic Acid Labeling and Delivery Tools for Neurobiology Technical Report
  • Effects of A-Methopterin on Nucleic Acid Synthesis in Leukemic Spleen Breis
  • Recovery efficiencies of nucleic acid extraction kits as measured by quantitative LightCyclerTM PCR
  • Effects of Antitumor Drugs upon P32Incorporation into Nucleic Acids of Mouse Tumors
  • Vitro Diagnostics Report

Manufacturers and Suppliers

  • Westburg
  • Foreign Suppliers of Nucleic Acid
  • Selling Leads of Nucleic Acid
  • Manufacturers of Nucleic Acid
  • Exporters of Nucleic Acid
  • Nucleic Acid Suppliers
  •  Trade Leads of Nucleic Acid

Equipments Suppliers

  • Auto Gen, Inc
  • Hy Laboratories Ltd
  • Suppliers of Automated Grinders
  • Foreign Suppliers of Automated Grinders
  • Indian Exporters of Automated Grinders
  • Homogenizer Foreign Suppliers
  • Indian Exporters of Homogenizer
  • Manufacturers of Homogenizer
  • Incubator Foreign Suppliers
  • Suppliers of Incubator
  • Manufacturers of Incubator

Nucleic Acid Testing

  • Nucleic Acid Testing for Novices
  • Nucleic Acid  Testing in Europe
  • Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing for HIV
  • Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing: New Disease Testing Method for Donor Blood
  • Multicenter Proficiency Testing of Nucleic Acid Amplification Methods

  Safety and Guides

  • Guidelines for Nucleic Acid  Industry
  • Safety Considerations of DNA in Food
  • Recombinant DNA Safety Considerations
  • Safety Issues of Nucleic Acid
  • FDA Clearance for Nucleic Acid
  • Guidelines for Licensing Veterinary Nucleic Acid Vaccines
  • Unregulated Hazards ‘Naked’ and ‘Free’ Nucleic Acids
  • FAQ's About Nucleic Acid

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