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Project at a Glance Contents on the CD ROM
  • Benzidine is a synthetic chemical that does not occur naturally. It is a crystalline (sandy or sugar-like) solid that may be grayish-yellow, white, or reddish-gray in color.
  • Benzidine, the trivial name for 4,4'-diaminobiphenyl, is the solid organic compound with the formula (C6H4NH2)2. This aromatic amine is a component of a test for cyanide and also in the production of dyes.
  •  Benzidine and its congeners constitute a family of similar synthetic aromatic amines  which are important precursors in the synthesis of dyes. Some of these dyes have the potential to metabolize to aromatic amines that are considered to be carcinogenic.
  • In the past, industry used large amounts of benzidine to produce dyes for cloth, paper, and leather. However, it has not been manufactured for sale in the United States since the mid-1970s.
  • Benzidine also has other names, such as 4,4'-diphenylenediamine or Fast Corinth Base B (a registered trade name).
  • Benzidine and the substituted benzidines find vide applications as an intermediate in the dyestuff industries and are largely used in the synthesis of azo dyes.
  • Benzidine is prepared in a two step process from nitrobenzene. First, the nitrobenzene is converted to 1,2-diphenylhydrazine, usually using iron powder as the reducing agent. Treatment of this hydrazine with mineral acids induces a rearrangement reaction to 4,4'-benzidine. Smaller amounts of other isomers are also formed. The benzidine rearrangement, which proceeds intramolecularly, is a classic mechanistic puzzle in organic chemistry.
  • 4,4-Diamino-1,1-biphenyl (benzidine) 1 is a well known compound, which has been widely used in the past in different areas of science. Molecules of this class were employed for a long time as
    primary materials in the manufacture of azodyes.
  • Benzidines also play an important role in cell biology and clinical work as valuable staining reagents. Due to its potential risks, research has been carried out to develop analogues for biological and medical purpose.
  • Benzidine - based dyes are largely classified as direct dyes, since they may be applied directly to fabrics or other substrates without pre-treatment or without subsequent processes that firmly attach the dye to the substrate.
  • The majority of the dye works in Hong Kong buy their dyes from Asian dye manufacturers, primarily from China, Taiwan, India, Thailand and Southern Korea. The main reason is the price differential between Western and Asian dyes where the latter is approximately half - price.
  • Benzidine and Dyes Metabolized to Benzidine
  • Benzidine Fate
  • Benzidine and benzidine-based dyes
  • Public Health Statement
  • Benzidine


  • Safety data for benzidine
  • 2,2'-Bis(trifluoromethyl)benzidine
  • Benzidine-d8
  • Diphenylamine
  • O-Dianisidine Dihyrochloride
  • Benzidine


  • Aryloxy p-benzidine compounds
  • Process for manufacture of benzidine pigments
  • Benzidine derivative and electrophotosensitive material using the same
  • Method for preparing three types of benzidine compounds in a specific ratio
  • Benzidine derivatives and their preparation and use
  • Process for making benzidine and other arylamines
  • Process for the manufacture of benzidine
  • Process for manufacturing benzidine type compounds
  • Method of purifying benzidines
  • Benzidine flakes
  • Production of benzidine and derivatives


  • Benzidines
  • Benzidine From Nitrobenzene
  • Synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of benzidine-based compounds
  • Fundamental Processes of Dye Chemistry
  • On the Mechanism of Staining Montmorillonite by Benzidine
  • Oxidative Activation of Benzidine and Its Derivatives by Peroxidases
  • The effect of pressure on the rate of the benzidine rearrangement
  • Synthesis and evaluation of organic pigments and intermediates
  • Blood Detection by chemical Methods
  • Dyes Derived from Benzidine and Its Congeners
  • An Evaluation of Tetramethylbenzidine as a Presumptive Test for Blood
  • Forensics History of Blood Analyzing
  • Use of benzidine for histological demonstration of haemoglobin in human bite marks
Raw Material Suppliers
  • Caustic Soda Suppliers
  • Hydrochloric Acid Suppliers
  • Litharge Suppliers
  • Mixed Xylene Suppliers
  • Nitrobenzene Suppliers


  • Adsorption and Oxidation of Benzidine
  • Biodegradation of benzidine based dye Direct Blue-6
  • Dye Metabolised to Benzidine
  • Factors Modulating Benzidine Carcinogenicity Bioassay
  • Interaction of Benzidine with DNA
  • Metabolism of the Benzidine-Based Azo Dye Direct Black 38 by Human Intestinal Microbiota
  • Mutagenecity studies of Benzidine and its Analogs
  • A Study of the sensitivity , stability and specificity of phenolphthalein as an indicator test for blood
  • Structural study of a Benzidine - vermiculite


  • Company from Gujarat
  • Company from India
  • Company from New York
  • Company from Virginia
  • Company from Washington

Risk Assessment

  • Hazard Information
  • Biological Effects of Benzidine Based Dyes
  • Risk Evaluation
  • Toxicological Profile for Benzidine
  • Dyestuffs: Safe handling in textile finishing

Manufacturers and Suppliers

  • Benzidine Suppliers
  • List of Suppliers
  • Chinese Suppliers
  • Worldwide Suppliers
  • Suppliers of Benzidine
  • Company from China
  • Company from Mumbai

Market and Report

  • Benzidine based dyes
  • Production
  • A Personal history of the Benzidine Rearrangement
  • Summary of Information Critical to Assessment of "Toxic"
  • Benzidine and its salts: supporting documentation provided by Switzerland

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